Latest Additions

These are the articles recently published. Original replies, which can start off a debate, are listed with their abstracts. Please note that responding articles do not have separate abstracts.



Wordsworth’s “The Baker’s Cart”

Venus Bargouth, Connotations, Vol. 28: 142-63.


This essay offers a historicized reading of William Wordsworth’s “The Baker’s Cart,” a fragment written between late 1796 and early 1797 at a time of rising bread prices but never titled or published by the poet himself. Pointing out the connections of this poem with Wordsworth’s earlier and later works, especially Salisbury Plain and The Ruined Cottage, I argue that the socio-economic plight of the unnamed protagonist reflects the predicament of the rural poor in late eighteenth-century England. This essay shows that “The Baker’s Cart” combines the poet’s early interest in social and political protest with his concern for human experience. In its rendering of suffering, the poem foreshadows Wordsworth’s preoccupation with the physical and the psychological aspects of the struggles of the poor that would characterize his works. Although “The Baker’s Cart” manifests some of the characteristics of contemporary protest poetry, its turn inward to discover the disintegration of the human mind caused by unrelieved suffering signals a departure from this genre. Wordsworth’s psychological analysis of the anonymous woman’s mental disposition captures an instance of mental disorder in a way that complements scientific psychiatry. As her mental disturbance results from social injustice, its representation is aligned with Wordsworth’s social criticism. This essay also examines the influence of the concept of sympathy on the composition of “The Baker’s Cart,” which exhibits the sentimental humanitarianism of the popular poetry of the 1790s. After the poet’s disappointment with Godwinian rationalism, he returns to the valorisation of emotions and incorporates sympathy into his aesthetic and ethical theories. In “The Baker’s Cart,” he induces his readers to sympathize with the protagonist and hence act on behalf of people like her.


Shifting Perspectives on Law in De Doctrina Christiana: A Response to Filippo Falcone

Jason A. Kerr, Connotations, Vol. 28: 129-41.


In his reply to Filippo Falcone’s article on questions concerning Milton’s authorship of De Doctrina Christiana, Jason A. Kerr approaches the argument from a historical perspective: “is the manuscript Miltonic in its material provenance?”


God’s Mending: Formal and Spiritual Correction in George Herbert’s “Deniall” and Henry Vaughan’s “Disorder and frailty”

Jonathan Nauman, Connotations, Vol. 28: 113-28.


George Herbert’s choice to present his devotional lyrics under a regime of unprecedented and demanding arrangements of rhyme and meter did not elicit general approval from the literary arbiters of his day. However, the formal strategies used in The Temple are successfully deployed to achieve Herbert’s literary and spiritual goals, and they reflect Herbert’s accomplishments as a musician. A careful reading of Herbert’s rhyme-mending strategy in his much-noted lyric “Deniall” shows the poem to effectively communicate, through a difficult and nuanced formal performance, a religious experience of divine alienation followed by reconciliation with God. When one turns attention to Henry Vaughan, one of Herbert’s most talented followers, one finds a different angle of approach toward challenging formal performance. Vaughan retreated from his less difficult and more fashionable classicist versifying in favor of efforts to emulate Herbert’s artistic and devotional accomplishments; and his adoption of Herbert’s stanzaic forms included an emulation of the rhyme-mending scheme of “Deniall” in his own poem “Disorder and frailty.” A reading of Vaughan’s verse shows how Herbert’s and Vaughan’s performances within similarly demanding verse forms differ both in motive and in outcome. Herbert presents the demands and results of poetic form as part of his poetic depiction of human collaboration with the divine, while Vaughan adopts similar formal constraints as an exercise of imitatio, enabling a voice of visionary union between God and the poet.



William Harmon, Connotations, Vol. 28: 112.


“You Are Black Inside”: Class, Race, and Sexuality in John Gray’s Park

Edward Lobb, Connotations, Vol. 28: 95-111.


John Gray (1866-1934) was a fin-de-siècle poet who moved briefly in the Wilde circle and was one of the models for Wilde’s Dorian Gray. Gray cut all ties with Wilde before the debacle and subsequently became a Catholic priest in Edinburgh. In the 1920s and 1930s he wrote poetry quite unlike his ’90s verse and published Park (1932), his only extended work of fiction. This oblique and playful novella is a fantasy in which Mungo Park—not the explorer, but a twentieth-century priest with the same name—wakes up in a future England governed by an aristocratic caste of black priests. The story is in part a coded expression of Gray’s sense of alienation and his views of class, race, and sexuality. Park’s outsider status and incidents in the novella reflect Gray’s various dislocations as someone who had left behind his working-class origins and his involvement in gay life through Wilde’s circle. The treatment of race in Park extends the analysis of class and sexuality and owes something to Gray’s own life; he had two half-African nephews. Elusive and strikingly modern, Park invites us to reconsider conventional ideas about identity and the boundaries between groups.


Rewriting Close Reading: A Response to Judith Anderson and Theresa M. DiPasquale

Heather Dubrow, Connotations, Vol. 28: 85-94.


In her entry into the debate on close reading John Donne, Heather Dubrow responds to the articles by Judith Anderson and Theresa M. DiPasquale, both published in Connotations 27.


Revisiting the Aesopic Race in the Late Twentieth Century: New Facets of Speed in Vikram Seth’s “The Hare and The Tortoise”

Bircan Nizamoğlu, Connotations, Vol. 28: 66-84.


Vikram Seth’s “The Hare and The Tortoise” (1991) is a comic rewriting of Aesop’s age-old fable. Seth answers the question of what the dynamics of the footrace would be if it were to be conducted in the late twentieth century, the era of acceleration characterized by fast technologies. In my paper, I claim that the socio-cultural significance of Seth’s “The Hare and The Tortoise” lies in the way it explores how these technologies alter the dynamics of the Aesopic race by offering new models of social relations, as well as a new time-space parameter, and an alternative perception of reality. The poem has a humorously critical tone. Seth juxtaposes two animal protagonists who develop different strategies to win the race, and thus makes the reader reflect upon his/her position vis-à-vis modern “races.” My argument is developed in three steps: first, I examine how Seth develops the Aesopic characters to reveal the modern individual’s relation to technology. Then, I discuss Seth’s take on the Aesopic footrace to analyze the shift from a corporeal to a technological understanding of speed, followed by an exploration of how, in the modern day, speed has the capacity of redefining reality through fast technologies.


More Context and Less: A Response to Lena Linne and Burkhard Niederhoff

Carolin Hahnemann, Connotations, Vol. 28: 43-65.


In her response to Lena Linne and Burkhard Niederhoff’s article on Alice Oswald’s poem “Memorial,” Carolin Hahnemann addresses how a wider understanding of recontextualization in relation to the poem’s similes unlocks new interpretive paths.


John Lyly and the Most Misread Speech in Shakespeare

Frederick Kiefer, Connotations, Vol. 28: 26-42.


Hamlet’s “What a piece of work is a man” speech has inspired disparate assessments. E. M. W. Tillyard and his followers saw it as a précis of Elizabethan attitudes. These days Shakespeareans see Hamlet’s words as a pose concocted to insulate the prince from those who would ferret out the secret of his transformation. Brian Vickers finds that the speech was not written to glorify anything. He calls it “the most misunderstood speech in Shakespeare.” I suggest that the distinctive style of Hamlet’s euphuistic speech is responsible for the varying responses to his remarks.


The Emergent Environmental Humanities: Engineering the Social Imaginary

Chad Weidner, Rosi Braidotti and Goda Klumbyte, Connotations, Vol. 28: 1-25.


If the Environmental Humanities (EH) matter, an essential concern is whether we can speak of the possibility of a philosopher of literary and ecological identity. This paper discusses the intersection points of the Environmental Humanities to the wider scientific debate. It suggests that the EH are suited to help construct knowledge for sustainable futures. The arrival of the Anthropocene provides opportunities to cross disciplinary boundaries. Ecocriticism investigates the complex and contradictory relationship between humans and the environment in literature. Ideas of citizenship allow space for conversation about civic responsibility and stewardship. Animal studies intervenes deeply across the humanities, which acknowledges the interspecies imaginary. Future techno-scientific developments make us reconsider distinctions between humans, animals, and machines. The concept of the posthuman emphasizes how profound changes will be for all species. Serious questions might best be answered by environmental philosophy, which articulates the impact of the environment on humans. New Materialism explains why matter matters, and has clear implications for the study of the environment. Work in postcolonial and digital media provides a platform to challenge geographic borders as well as reconsider national contexts. Essentially, this paper asserts that the EH is building critical mass, and functions as a lightning rod between the arts and sciences. Such a development has profound consequences for the future of literary studies.